The Sized Trait

By Huon Wilson — Published 12 Jan 2015

Contents

    An important piece in my story about trait objects in Rust0 is the Sized trait, so I’m slotting in this short post between my discussion of low-level details and the post on “object safety”.

    Sized is a (very) special compiler built-in trait that is automatically implemented or not based on the sizedness of a type. A type is considered sized if the precise size of a value of type is known and fixed at compile time once the real types of the type parameters are known (i.e. after completing monomorphisation). For example,

    • u8 is one byte,
    • Vec<T> is either 12 or 24 bytes (platforms with 32 and 64 bit pointers respectively), independent of T,
    • pointers like &T are sized too, on 64-bit platforms &T is either 8 or 16 bytes, for sized T and unsized T respectively. This may seems like the size isn’t known, but the sizedness of T is always known at compile time, so the precise one of those options is also known.

    Types for which the size is not known are called dynamically sized types (DSTs), and there’s two classes of examples in current Rust1: [T] and Trait. A slice2 [T] is unsized because it represents an unknown-at-compile-time number of Ts contiguous in memory. A Trait is unsized because it represents a value of any type that implements Trait and these have wildly different sizes; I discussed this in the previous post too. Unsized values must always appear behind a pointer at runtime, like &[T] or Box<Trait>, and have the information required to compute their size and other relevant properties (the length for [T], the vtable for Trait) stored next to that pointer.

    Sized types are more flexible, since the compiler knows how to manipulate them directly: passing them directly into functions, moving them about in memory. Putting an unsized type behind a pointer effectively makes it sized. A Box trait object, like Box<Trait>, is the closest one can get to handling a trait object as a normal value; the Box ensures sizedness (at the expense of an allocation) without fundamentally changing the ownership semantics of a normal value.

    ?Sized

    The Sized trait gets some special syntax for use in bounds, at the moment: ?Sized. Such a bound is necessary because Sized is special: it is a default bound for type parameters in most positions, and so one needs some way to opt-in to a parameter not necessarily being sized.

    1
    2
    3
    fn foo<T>() {} // can only be used with sized T
    
    fn bar<T: ?Sized>() {} // can be used with both sized and unsized T
    

    This bound is particularly special because adding the ?Sized bound to a parameter T increases the number of types that can be used for T, whereas every other trait bound reduces it.

    This unusual decision was chosen because of the increased flexibility of sized types, and some data (which I now can’t find in the issue tracker) which indicated that most type parameters needed to be sized. That is, not having these defaults would result in many instances of T: Sized bounds in the standard library and elsewhere.

    However, I believe this data did not consider using some form of inference (like lifetime elision) to try to guess when sizedness was likely to be needed, and some data Niko has been collecting apparently implies that such inference may make removing this special case significantly more palatable. (It may or may not be so palatable so as to be worth the breaking change…)

    Comments:
    1. Per the previous post, this post is designed to reflect the state of Rust at version: rustc 1.0.0-nightly (44a287e6e 2015-01-08 17:03:40 -0800).

    2. There is the possibility that Rust will gain some form of “inheritance”, and Niko points out to me that Sized may play an important role there too: certain types (e.g. “base classes” in an conventional inheritance scheme) make sense to be unsized.

    3. The unsized string type str is usually considered a slice, since it is just a [u8] with the guarantee that the bytes are valid UTF-8.

    I'm Huon Wilson huon_w, a post-graduate student in computational statistics. I'm a volunteer on Rust's core team.

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